LifeOS: exploring the system that executes DNA

July 7, 2010

LifeOS Published!

Hey, it’s true. Way back on March 6th i said that the publishing process had begun. Well, yesterday the printer shipped the first order. I am told that it might take 6 to 8 weeks for Amazon and the others to include it their catalogs, but they will.

Ann Lowe did a fine job on the cover and interior design. It was really exciting to hold the proof in my hand. Ahhh, but this is only a beginning… somebody has to buy it! One step at a time, jim. =-)

February 2, 2010

Science & Spirituality

by Romik Kimor (videos)
Science & Spirituality – The Essence of Life from Two Perspectives: Dr. Stuart Kauffman & Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp

Quantum fields, biophotons as information that controls cellular process… good stuff!
This one requires a plugin.
This is on my facebook page.

Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp:

“Biological Systems are governed by the special
interaction of a coherent electromagnetic field (biophotons) and biological
matter. There is a permanent feedback coupling between field and matter
in a way that the field directs the location and activity of matter,
while matter provides the boundary conditions of the field. Since
the field is almost fully coherent, the interference patterns of the
field contain the necessary information about the regulatory function.”

January 23, 2010

Back in July

It all started with a minor dispute with my ISP. It escalated to me losing my connection, and having to close the bank account they were trying to suck dry, to get some peace. The peace was nice, and everytime i thought about spending money to get back online, something inside said, “Just a few more days of peace, huh?”

I got a lot done that wasn’t getting anywhere while i blogged. I rewrote the LifeOS manuscript from beginning to end, walked in the woods and read some books. Well, both the walking and reading, led to some additions to the finished rewrite.

Almost ready to publish! Here is a rough of the cover.
bookcover rough

Sorry, to those folks whose comments i didn’t answer. I am just barely keeping up with the current load.


April 4, 2009

Systemic Emotion

Emotion: an instinctive response to environmental situations, that is distinguishable from logic and reason.

Many folks feel that emotions are a throw back to our animal past and therefore, should be suppressed in favor of a logical state of mind. To those that see the human species as the pinnacle of evolution, emotions seem like a primitive mechanism that threatens to pull us down, impeding our progress. Our reptilian brain, favoring primitive behavior if survival is threatened, is a case in point.

Primitive or Fundamental?

Rather than looking at emotions as primitive, there are advantages to thinking of them as fundamental, performing valuable functions at all levels of biological systems. The emotional mechanism is just as important in our “advanced” civilization, as ever, it is the recorded behaviors and their settings that are primitive and need to be updated.

In the individual, emotions manage the state of readiness to meet environmental situations. The source of our emotions is definitely in our subconscious. Environmental situations, real or imagined, cause the release of a flood of chemical messengers, that reset the state of all subsystems, in preparation to react.

Security Alerts

One way to look at emotion is that it is a part of the security system, that instantly alerts Captain Self and the rest of the crew to danger or any situational change. Emotions can switch the state of readiness of the entire organism in a flash. Emotions work in real time, but are also intimately involved with memory and recall. In memory, emotions continue their role as an alert mechanism.

Not only is the emotional state recorded in memory right along with events, it also measures and grades the experience. The type and intensity of the emotion becomes a flag that marks the experience, both for a gauge to its importance and for easier recall. We know that emotional state has a lot to do with how well we remember things. So, the flow of data that our memory processes is categorized, referenced and assigned degree of importance(prioritized) on the fly.

Systems Level Emotions

Besides looking at what emotions do for the individual, we want to understand what function emotions perform for the system. From this vantage point it is immediately apparent that, as well as managing the agent’s internal state of readiness, emotions affect the external world. Emotions are part of the communications network that manages social relationships.

Body Language

In animals we see that emotions are communicated, between individuals and groups, by body language and other visual cues. It appears to be a separate channel of information from vocal exchanges. For example, the tails of dogs and cats project their emotional state to any observer. Barking guard dogs will often be wagging their tails while appearing to be vigorously defending their turf. One end of the dog is yelling, “I’m doing my job”, while the other end is saying, “Take me for a walk.”

For we humans, facial expressions and other body language communicate hidden feelings. No matter what the conscious mind is trying to convey, the subconscious is often projecting a different picture. To whom? The subconscious of other agents.

Color Coded

Throughout the animal kingdom, color is used to broadcast emotional state, especially in mating. From the red rumps of female baboons in heat to the colorful displays of cuttlefish, emotions play an important role in the reproductive process. Displays of fear serve to warn local residents of danger. Emotions serve a survival function for individuals and groups, but go even farther, providing realtime feedback to the higher levels of control, like species and ecosystems.

The Brine Shrimp Massacre

Remember the brine shrimp experiments in Cleve Backster’s lab? Death is a radical change of state for any organism. The traumatic termination of any living thing registers on all local agents, and beyond. The Primary Perception revealed by Backster’s experiments, is the core communicator of agent states to the nonlocal environment. This is fundamental emotion, highlighting, organizing and prioritizing the holographic feedback loops of all living things. How agents feel about what they are doing, is important to the system. The total of all agents states, generates the holoverse, the emotional state of System.

Suppressed Connectivity

Our attempts to suppress our emotions has hampered our ability to communicate with our local environment as well as the System at large. Many folks recognize that the root cause of much of our troubles is our separation from the natural world. We have done it to ourselves.

March 25, 2009

The Vehicle

Filed under: Ch 01 Setting Our Goals — Tags: , , — insomniac @ 3:31 am

Our primary vehicle for this journey has been our consciousness. The secondary vehicle has been the body that carries the first around. They both follow pathways to destinations, but in different landscapes. The body can only move in physical space, limited by physical laws. Consciousness can go anywhere, without regard to time and space. That’s the vehicle we want, one that is unfettered, free to discover new pathways or revive old ones.

They make a good team, the body and mind. Together they are capable of great feats of navigation and discovery. One of their great assets is the ability to be in two places at once. The body can be sitting in a chair, while the mind travels to distant lands. Or the mind can link up with other minds, so they can go someplace together, while their bodies remain in separate places around the globe. So, we have a “real” landscape that our body traverses and a virtual one, in which, our mind is free to roam.

When you and i travel together in our virtual world, we try to share landscapes, but they are never the same. We have each built our own virtual landscape on top of the one we inherited from our ancestors. Although we are using the same environmental input to create our own version of the landscape, we assign different values to objects and events according to our cultural and peer relationships.

One way we can compare our different landscapes is to look for the structural similarities. How have we built our virtual world? It is a world of pure information, existing only in imagination, but constructed as a model of the “real” thing. So, we set out on an imaginary journey, each exploring our own virtual world, looking for cycles and patterns that repeat, structural underpinnings and connections that enable the high level of information processing these vehicles possess. This is a road test for our imagination.

March 23, 2009

Mind Beyond the Brain

One major misconception fostered by mainstream science that really affects their credibility is that “mind” is confined to the brain. The scientific community is so sure of this model that they refuse to even consider other possibilities. Locked into their boxes of logic, reason and math, in complete denial of a spiritual component, they seem disconnected from reality. Yet, they insist on trying to bolster their philosophical position by condemning all other methods for understanding reality. These childish reactions are not lost on the world audience.

Quantum Collapse

The concept of a purely physical universe is falling apart, (some might say shattered), by Quantum Mechanics. Even in the most respected bastions of logic and reason, the material approach to defining reality has uncovered its own limitations. However, they still want to keep the mind in a brain box, as if the evidence of totally interconnected, highly organized and communicating biological networks at lower(more primitive) levels, would not apply to the most advanced intelligence organ on the planet.

Let me put this another way. The most primitive single celled creatures, bacteria, worms, insects and neurons all learn and grow by exchanging information between individuals, species and environment. Information flows in waves of feedback through the environment, maintaining system integrity. To believe that the most sophisticated information processing organ around, the human brain, would be confined, separated or cut off from the environment and therefore denied use of this most fundamental of biological abilities, just doesn’t make any sense, logic or no logic. Unless you want to believe that the human brain was “dumbed down” from the rest of the system for a reason.

Restricting mind to the human brain would be an evolutionary step backwards.

Mind: nothing, but neurons and electrochemical reactions

It seems to be one of their primary assumptions that consciousness is a only a product of specific neural activity and therefore restricted to the brain. Electrical impulses, neurons and chemical reactions are thought to be the cause for consciousness, and therefore it is assumed that the mind cannot be active outside of a brain. Nonsense!

That’s like me trying to convince you that your cell phone can’t access outside information, because it doesn’t have a wire. You know better. You can call anybody you want and that proves me wrong. If you can’t make calls, (access outside information), with your cell phone, it is because you don’t have a contract, or you are out of range of a tower, or your battery is dead, or your phone is broken, right? Of course, if you don’t push the buttons, nothing happens.

The human brain is a far more sophisticated communications device than your cell phone. If you can’t access outside information with our brain, it is probably a user problem and not broken equipment. You don’t push the buttons, nothing happens. Precognition, telepathy, remote viewing, synchronicity and the rest are all features accessible with your brain. If you never take the time to master the skills necessary to use your built-in features, they certainly won’t work.

If the scientific community really wants to know why their credibility is so low,(about 80% choose superstition every time), they need look no farther than their absurd denial of “paranormal” activities.

What About You?

But how about you, personally? Do you believe that consciousness only exists inside the brain? If that is your belief, you are part of the minority.

That such concepts are nothing but superstition, is one of the things that education harps on continuously. By the time one has spent a career wearing that set of blinders, it seems to be true. However, the majority of world citizens believe that thoughts, emotions and prayers extend beyond the physical brain. It is no surprise to us that Cleve Backster’s plants responded to the death of the brine shrimp, or that people know they are being watched, or that prayers can aid in healing.

Personal Matter

I have said that i don’t expect “science” to overcome the inertia of its materialist, reductionist(soul-less) past, and embrace a holistic reality, anytime soon. But i really don’t care whether “science” ever gets it or not. My reason for touching on the subject at all, is but a hope to convince the reader that consciousness is a personal matter; not to be defined for us by institutions.

It can be interesting, and sometimes helpful, to understand what leadership believes, or wants us to believe, about a subject, but don’t forget that grain of salt. Their reason for fostering their beliefs on us has nothing to do with a search for truth, but for the exercise of control.

This view comes from looking at “science” as a subsystem, closely linked with financial, political, military, bureaucratic, educational and other subsystems, that control human behavior. Within that group, science is the closest thing to a conscience to be found. Without a spiritual component, science fails in this function. For the most part, the behavior of these groups has proven to be focused on accumulating wealth and not to be in the public interest, nor the interest of a healthy environment.

Rebel Researchers

Within this structure, there are individuals and groups that have formed subsystems, networks and associations that run counter to the overall reductionist, materialist belief system. It remains to be seen whether they will flourish within, and change “old science” into something new, or split off and form a new branch on their own. Either way, i see these groups as the foundation for the future of science. Until the current paradigm shifts to this new foundation, science will continue to misconstrue basic cognitive functions.

Your mind belongs to you, not the state. It is your responsibility to learn how to use it. It is too valuable a possession to let fall into the hands of the politicos, bureaucrats and money changers.

March 12, 2009

The Human Experiment

Filed under: Ch 10 Conclusion, Drafts — Tags: , , , — insomniac @ 9:30 am

From the beginning of this project i’ve tried to keep my quotes and explanations as simple as possible. I’ve quoted mostly from encyclopedias, dictionaries and wikies, sticking to popular concepts. I have been reluctant to quote from scientific sources directly for several reasons. For one, experience has taught me that it isn’t a good idea to quote people out of context. Many time i have marked an exciting quote, only to find later in reading the author that my interpretation of the quote was based on my own world view. It made sense to me in ways not intended by the author.

Lately however, i’ve come across several folks within the scientific community that are clearly working from a similar context. I think i can quote some of them without stirring up argument about what they meant to say.

In the book, “Programming the Universe”, MIT physicist Seth Lloyd says,

“The universe is a quantum computer whose computations are the movements of information that define the world we experience.”

Seth is one of the leading experts on quantum computing, actually having built one. I had never heard of him until a couple of weeks ago, but some of his stuff sounds like we could have collaborated. Not so, i assure you.

I interpret the above statement to mean the rules of quantum mechanics move the information we experience as consciousness. I don’t think i am stretching Seth’s intent.

In this same time frame i have discovered Nick Herbert, whose book, “Elemental Mind”, also sounds familiar. His take is that “mind” is a fundamental natural process like light or electricity.

There again, i am pleasantly surprised that the conclusions reached by these experts in physics are so close to my own. Mind, conscious and unconscious, are fundamental functions of information processing that control and manage activity in biological systems.

All Knowing Universe

The System is intelligent. It isn’t just clever, but truly all knowing. The Universe is the memory of everything that has ever happened. It knows everything about itself, but still has to maintain homeostasis. Like any complex adaptive system, variables must be monitored, goals identified, strategies devised and implemented to maintain its level of success.

Living systems grow, reproduce and disperse into the environment in an experimental mode, (sandbox), constantly testing new configurations against the results of all other experiments. The system learns to adapt to its own adaptations.

Observation, Planning and Action

The physical Universe is the memory of the process of It monitoring Itself. The process is observation, planning and action.

Just like ants and bees, we build to the patterns in our heads. We build objects out of matter, adding our spiritual metaphors to Universal memory. These objects represent our contribution to what the System knows about itself. We human beings are experiments that devise and carry out experiments on our own.

As we repeat the cycle of observation, planning and action, we learn. LifeOS is always observing, planning and acting; growing, reproducing and dispersing; creating, testing and choosing; in short, learning. The obsessions that drive our science and industry are not unique to human beings, but expressions of the fundamental intent inherent in Life itself.

Protected Area

So we humans have been put to the test. We have been given experimental capabilities. We are operating in our own sandbox. We have been given all the resources we need to be successful. The worst we can do is fail. It is up to us.

March 11, 2009

Conceptual Sandbox

There is another information processing concept that is used extensively in biological systems. It is a protected area called a sandbox.

Sandbox: A protected, limited environment where applications (e.g. Java programs downloaded from the Internet) are allowed to “play” without risking damage to the rest of the system.

Virtual Machine

This limited environment has available all of the important resources the untested code needs to function, but is confined to a virtual machine where it can’t interact with the “real” operating system. This isolation makes for a safe place to experiment with new code. Part of what makes it work is the relative innocence of such an area. The coded elements within the sandbox are “unaware” that they are part of a larger system and operate as if they were an isolated entity.

As you can see, software development depends on this concept at all levels. In this conceptual environment, code can be tested and refined, errors, viruses and misconceptions can be identified and corrected, bold new ideas can be entertained without risk to established procedures.

Protected Areas

Natural systems, both biological and otherwise, make extensive use of this concept. The planet Earth is a good local example. Planets, solar systems and galaxies are isolated environments that certainly fit the conceptual model. Australia and the Galapagos Islands are also examples of protected and limited environments where new models can be tested.

From an evolutionary standpoint, a species serves the same function. Each individual agent the system produces operates in its own sandbox. An agent is furnished with its own operating system, its own algorithms and the ability to choose among them or make up new ones. Just as in its computer counterpart, the agent is unaware that it is part of the larger system and acts on its own, interacting with its own perceived environment. If this experimental agent is successful and survives to reproduce, the code passes the test and continues to contribute to the whole. If this version fails to reproduce, the code is rejected, and no damage is done to the system.

Nested Sandboxes

So, we can look at the universe as a system of nested sandboxes. In this view, every living thing can be seen as an experiment in sustainability. Natural selection verifies the success of the test, incorporating the tested code into a new configuration that also will be tested. Meanwhile, all experiments are monitored and compared through their holographic entanglement.

March 9, 2009

Resolving Uncertainty

What have we discovered in this journey through the system of Life? We have traveled from the smallest particles in the cosmos, past all the energy, matter and information available to us, right up to the Whole Universe itself, looking for reality. We have discovered that the Universe is not really solid, but consists of energy interacting with itself. Energy is always in motion. According to our best understanding, energy is conserved, that is, energy isn’t created or destroyed, but is dynamic, always moving and changing. All of this dynamic action follows consistent pathways that show a set of system wide laws, rules or protocols.

Natural Laws

So, we have only two elements to consider really; energy and the laws it follows when it moves or changes. Whether we consider those laws to exist outside of energy itself, or are contained within it, they consist of pure information. Our material universe consists of energy, organized by information we call natural laws. This interaction produces change and movement. On the macro level, we can use these laws to predict exactly where objects will be anytime in the future. It appears that uncertainty is very low at this level, making the universe appear to be deterministic.

However, any flexibility to adapt to change has to be allowed for within the scope natural laws. It should be obvious that the laws obeyed by living systems cannot be deterministic, but must allow for adaptive options. The uncertainty of the future must be resolved into the relative certainty of the present. That can only be done by making choices.

Intelligent Choices

We know that, at least in our own case, this ability to choose between options is a function of our consciousness. Regardless of the complexity involved, to evaluate options and make a choice, requires at least a rudimentary consciousness. Although it is true that conditional responses can be represented in code without consciousness being present, as in a computer program, code writing is an abstract process that requires much more “intelligence” than it takes to make simple choices. The simplest explanation is that conscious action is taking place at the point of action.

Now, if we can accept the fact that choices can only be made by some sort of conscious action, it leads to the conclusion that, anytime or anywhere within the system that uncertainty is resolved, conscious action is taking place.

Navigating the Future

We know that at the level of human existence the future is uncertain. We can see the future coming at us and we have the ability to choose our most promising path through it. We count on our experience to give us an understanding of probabilities involved in choosing our path. If we look at other levels of existence around us we see that uncertainty gets resolved in much the same way. We see plants and animals adapting to their environment by choosing options. Animals routinely make choices for food, navigation and mates. Some plants track the sun across the sky rather than simply putting their solar collectors in the up position. Tracking the sun requires memory, a feedback loop and and some sort of decision making process. Even the smallest single cell creatures move and change following rules. In biological systems, it is experience that makes the rules.

Quantum Leap

Now let’s jump to the tiniest of particles and look at how they behave. Down at this level the rules are different. Down here we can’t pinpoint where things are; uncertainty is everywhere. Particles appear and disappear, wave functions collapse if you just look at them and nothing seems real. How can such an inconsistent and unreliable collection of energy packets produce the concise material universe we know and love? Although the laws of Quantum Mechanics seem vague, inconsistent with classic laws of physics and even downright strange, they have proven experimentally to be the most reliable of any natural laws discovered by science. So, how do we make sense out of this seeming paradox?


The holographic model erases the inconsistencies and gives us a better idea of how it works. The position of particles within the atom are holographically linked to the nested fields of the larger system in which they exist. These particles don’t represent their own position, but reflect the current dynamic state of the Whole. In other words, the wave function, (all of the information pertaining to the state of a particle), represents the state of the larger hologram. The apparent uncertainty at the subatomic level is a mirror of the dynamic probabilities of higher(nonlocal) levels.

In this view, the flow of the universe is constantly resolving the uncertainty of the future into the past. Matter is the memory of that process.

February 10, 2009

Networks in Complex Systems

Biological systems process matter, energy and information. Every bit that moves in the process follows a path. Those pathways form a map of the interactions between the various elements of the system. These maps describe networks.

Computers have given us the reason, as well as the tools, to understand, build and maintain networks. They have given us the memory necessary to track their evolution. They have given us the power to analyze all kinds of information and discover the universal patterns of network functionality and growth. This is an extra bonus of the information age. Besides, the explosion of information technologies and the increased efficiency they have brought to all human endeavors, besides the exponential increase in the availability of information to all, besides the awesome power we have acquired to input the global system, the most important aspect may be our realization that information processing is fundamental to living systems. The study of networks in complex systems may be a Rosetta stone that will help us decipher the code of life.

It is becoming a truism that we’re living in the era of networks. Just about anywhere we turn, we encounter one. We have the World Wide Web and the internet; we have social networks, genetic networks, and biochemical networks. These things – web pages, genes, chemicals in our cells – are nothing new. What is new is that everybody’s waking up to the fact that there is a network behind all of these systems, and we need to think about networks as a common feature of all complex systems.
–Albert-László Barabási
Interview at:

Throughout this discussion we have been shifting our focus from objects to process. LifeOS is a process of motion rather than a static structure. The study of networks gives us another method for understanding what a system does.

Household Networks

A house is a basic system that provides benefits for its inhabitants. The structure and its subsystems protect the inhabitants from the elements while networks provide the energy, materials and information necessary for it to function as a household.

The walls are subsystems that support a roof that consists of subsystems that channel rain water around the structure, keeping the interior dry. Pipes and wires bring incoming essential elements like water, gas, electricity and carry away the waste.

The pipes and wires are easy to see as networks, as their blueprints clearly show their web of relationships, but there are other functions that fit the pattern, as well. Windows and doors are openings that regulate and filter incoming light and air, while allowing or preventing access by insects and such. Groceries follow channels that are not as constrained as pipes and wires, but can be diagramed, as well. First there is the network that supplies the groceries to the market place and then the pathways the goods follow once in the house. A map of these pathways is complex and dynamic. These networks interact to provide the needs for each functional element to carry out its task.

Informational Networks

Besides the material and energy, we have purely informational networks that participate in the household dynamic. Phone calls make changes in other networks, like “Pick up some blueberries on the way home from work”, or calling a plumber. Radio, TV and of course, the internet, provide information that has real effects in the household.

Essentially we are looking at this household as if it were a giant cell. There are openings in the membrane that regulate and filter intake and output from the local environment. Internal networks route elements to their respective processing stations, etc. Purely informational networks influence and control process behavior at every turn. The way that a cell’s internal networks and systems function over time, determines its success.

Network View

This is just some of the magic of using the network view to analyze a system. The flow of energy, material and information throughout the system, is directly related to its state. Blockages and congestion in this flow are fundamental to system failure. Network view can expose potential bottlenecks and disturbances before failure becomes an issue. Like when you notice the sluggish drain, and call the plumber before the toilet overflows.

Besides being an excellent way to analyze a specific process, networks are a common denominator in all complex systems. Network view offers a way to understand the life process at all levels.


Networks grow in very specific patterns. Growth is accomplished by adding nodes to existing networks, one node at a time. The nodes, their connections and carrying capacity, adapt to demands; that is, they grow to accommodate use. This pattern is observable in such diverse systems as cells, organs, social groups, memory/learning, the internet, prairie dog trails and our household example. The rules that govern network evolution in complex systems are like the rules that govern information processing in general, in that the rules apply across the board, regardless of the platform, language or medium employed.

Network Types

Basically networks come in types that are characterized by the number of links per node, degree of separation(how many hops to connect any two nodes) and their shape.
Random Networks have nodes with nearly the same number of links. Older nodes will have more links than newer ones, but variation will be small. The number of hops necessary to connect any two nodes will be proportional to the size of the network. So, large scale random networks will get slower as they grow. They also tend to be unstable when stressed by heavy loads.

If steeped in neodarwinism, one might expect biological networks to be random in their construction. However, random networks rarely appear in living systems. When a node is added, decisions are made as to how it will be connected, based on a combination of network design criteria(preferential attachment) and usage. In fact, this network design criteria, employed at the cellular level, is well ahead of our current understanding. We are still learning.

Biological systems and most manmade networks fall into two categories: scale-free and hierarchical.

Scale-free Networks are characterized by a very low number of hops to connect any two nodes, regardless of network size. The structure that results has a wide variation in the number of links per node. Some nodes collect considerably more links, becoming hubs, while others have only a few connections. Scale-free networks are much more robust than random networks. Many more nodes can be disabled without disrupting traffic. They excel in the efficient distribution of information.

Hierarchical Networks form clusters that have many internal links, and limited external links. This is the basis for modules, organs and agents. These networks are best at processing information. Hierarchical networks are characteristic of entities.

These two types of networks are analogous to conventional and relational databases, or parallel and series circuits in electronics. If you can see the yin and yang of the two, or the split brain model, you’ve got it. These two fundamental modes of operation interact to weave our reality at all levels.

Invisible Criteria

It is obvious that the formation of networks is guided by some invisible criteria. At the critical stage where a node is added to a network, called preferential attachment, decisions are made that affect the future efficiency and stability of the system. Just as in dopamine neurons, where future expectations play a role in their behavior, the growth of biological networks exhibit the same ability to plan ahead, like something “knows” what it is doing.

In human networks we know where the “intelligence” is applied. It is at this same crucial step in the process. When a node is added, humans choose how it is connected. Yet, until we learned about networks, we were powerless to predict how they would function. Biological systems have known how to manage networks all along. They have a way to apply knowledge to the growth of networks. Seems to me that is a job for our coherent fields.

Holographic Fields are similar to networks in that every node is connected to every other node, in one hop. However, the nodes aren’t connected by “lines”, as in the others. No matter nor energy is exchanged, only information. There are no pathways, rather a field that contains the potential for all pathways. It becomes a medium that information traverses in waves. Any disturbance within the field traces patterns between affected nodes. These trails are the beginnings of physical network linkages to come. From these patterns grow combinations of hierarchical modules linked seamlessly into scale-free networks that process to a targeted outcome.

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